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In , the first American college rowing club was formed at Yale University. The International Rowing Federation French: Across six continents, countries now have rowing federations that participate in the sport.
Rowing is one of the oldest Olympic sports. Though it was on the programme for the games, racing did not take place due to bad weather.
Today, fourteen boat classes race at the Olympics: In Olympic years, only the non-Olympic boat classes are raced at the World Championships.
The European Rowing Championships are held annually, along with three World Rowing Cups in which each event earns a number of points for a country towards the World Cup title.
Since , rowing has also been competed at the Paralympic Games. Many other competitions often exist for racing between clubs, schools, and universities in each nation.
While rowing, the athlete sits in the boat facing toward the stern, and uses the oars which are held in place by the oarlocks to propel the boat forward towards the bow.
This may be done on a canal, river, lake, sea, or other large bodies of water. The sport requires strong core balance, physical strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance.
Whilst the action of rowing and equipment used remains fairly consistent throughout the world, there are many different types of competition. These include endurance races, time trials , stake racing, bumps racing , and the side-by-side format used in the Olympic games.
The many different formats are a result of the long history of the sport , its development in different regions of the world, and specific local requirements and restrictions.
The rowing stroke may be characterized by two fundamental reference points. The catch , which is placement of the oar blade in the water, and the extraction , also known as the finish or release , when the rower removes the oar blade from the water.
The action between catch and release is the first phase of the stroke that propels the boat. At the catch the rower places the blade in the water and applies pressure to the oar by pushing the seat toward the bow of the boat by extending the legs, thus pushing the boat through the water.
The point of placement of the blade in the water is a relatively fixed point about which the oar serves as a lever to propel the boat. The hands meet the chest right above the diaphragm.
At the end of the stroke, with the blade still in the water, the hands drop slightly to unload the oar so that spring energy stored in the bend of the oar gets transferred to the boat, which eases removing the oar from the water and minimizes energy wasted on lifting water above the surface splashing.
The recovery phase follows the drive. The recovery starts with the extraction and involves coordinating the body movements with the goal to move the oar back to the catch position.
In extraction, the rower pushes down on the oar handle to quickly lift the blade from the water and rapidly rotates the oar so that the blade is parallel to the water.
This process is sometimes referred to as feathering the blade. Simultaneously, the rower pushes the oar handle away from the chest. The blade emerges from the water square and feathers immediately once clear of the water.
After feathering and extending the arms, the rower pivots the body forward. Once the hands are past the knees, the rower compresses the legs which moves the seat towards the stern of the boat.
The leg compression occurs relatively slowly compared to the rest of the stroke, which affords the rower a moment to recover, and allows the boat to glide through the water.
The gliding of the boat through the water during recovery is often called run. A controlled slide is necessary to maintain momentum and achieve optimal boat run.
However, various teaching methods disagree about the optimal relation in timing between drive and recovery. Near the end of the recovery, the rower squares the blade into perpendicular orientation with respect to the water, and begins another stroke.
There are two schools of thought with respect to the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full lungs at the catch and empty lungs at the catch.
With the full lung technique, rowers exhale during the stroke and inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will take a quick pant at the end of the stroke before taking a deep breath on the recovery that fills the lungs by the time the catch is reached.
In the empty-lung technique, rowers inhale during the drive, and exhale during the recovery so that they have empty lungs at the catch.
Because the knees come up to the chest when the lungs are empty, this technique allows the rower to reach a little bit further than if the lungs were full of air.
Full lungs at the release also can help the rower to maintain a straighter back, a style encouraged by many coaches.
A scientific study of the benefits of entrained breathing technique in relatively fit, but untrained, rowers did not show any physiological or psychological benefit to either technique.
Rowing is a cyclic or intermittent form of propulsion such that in the quasi-steady state the motion of the system the system comprising the rower, the oars, and the boat , is repeated regularly.
In order to maintain the steady-state propulsion of the system without either accelerating or decelerating the system, the sum of all the external forces on the system, averaged over the cycle, must be zero.
Thus, the average drag retarding force on the system must equal the average propulsion force on the system. The drag forces consist of aerodynamic drag on the superstructure of the system components of the boat situated above the waterline , as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion of the system.
The propulsion forces are the forward reaction of the water on the oars while in the water. Note also that the oar can be used to provide a drag force a force acting against the forward motion when the system is brought to rest.
The distinction between rowing and other forms of water transport, such as canoeing or kayaking , is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot point that is in a fixed position relative to the boat, this point is the load point for the oar to act as a second class lever the blade fixed in the water is the fulcrum.
In flatwater rowing, the boat also called a shell or fine boat is narrow to avoid drag , and the oars are attached to oarlocks also called gates at the end of outriggers extending from the sides of the boat.
Rowing is one of the few non-weight bearing sports that exercises all the major muscle groups, including quads , biceps , triceps , lats , glutes and abdominal muscles.
The sport also improves cardiovascular endurance and muscular strength. High-performance rowers tend to be tall and muscular: The increased power is achieved through increased length of leverage on the oar through longer limbs of the athlete.
In multi-person boats 2,4, or 8 , the lightest person typically rows in the bow seat at the front of the boat. Rowing is a low impact sport with movement only in defined ranges, so twist and sprain injuries are rare.
However, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints , the spine and the tendons of the forearm, and inflammation of these are the most common rowing injuries.
Holding the oars too tightly or making adjustments to technique may cause recurring or new blisters, as it is common to feather the blade previously described.
Ever since the earliest recorded references to rowing, the sporting element has been present. An Egyptian funerary inscription of BC records that the warrior Amenhotep Amenophis II was also renowned for his feats of oarsmanship.
In the Aeneid , Virgil mentions rowing forming part of the funeral games arranged by Aeneas in honour of his father. The first known "modern" rowing races began from competition among the professional watermen in the United Kingdom that provided ferry and taxi service on the River Thames in London.
Prizes for wager races were often offered by the London Guilds and Livery Companies or wealthy owners of riverside houses. Prize matches amongst professionals similarly became popular on other rivers throughout Great Britain in the 19th century, notably on the Tyne.
In America, the earliest known race dates back to in New York, when a pettiauger defeated a Cape Cod whaleboat in a race. Amateur competition in England began towards the end of the 18th century.
Documentary evidence from this period is sparse, but it is known that the Monarch Boat Club of Eton College and the Isis Club of Westminster School were both in existence in the s.
At the University of Oxford bumping races were first organised in when Brasenose College and Jesus College boat clubs had the first annual race  while at Cambridge the first recorded races were in The Boat Race between Oxford University and Cambridge University first took place in , and was the second intercollegiate sporting event following the first Varsity Cricket Match by 2 years.
The interest in the first Boat Race and subsequent matches led the town of Henley-on-Thames to begin hosting an annual regatta in Narragansett Boat Club was founded in exclusively for rowing.
During an parade in Providence, R. I, a group of boatmen were pulling a longboat on wheels, which carried the oldest living survivor of the Gaspee Raid.
They boasted to the crowd that they were the fastest rowing crew on the Bay. A group of Providence locals took issue with this and challenged them to race, which the Providence group summarily won.
The six-man core of that group went on in to found NBC. The Schuylkill Navy is an association of amateur rowing clubs of Philadelphia. Founded in , it is the oldest amateur athletic governing body in the United States.
At its founding, it had nine clubs; today, there are At least 23 other clubs have belonged to the Navy at various times.
Racing boats often called shells are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. There is some trade off between boat speed and stability in choice of hull shape.
They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to increase the effectiveness of the rudder. Originally made from wood , shells are now almost always made from a composite material usually a double skin of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic with a sandwich of honeycomb material for strength and weight advantages.
FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual team will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology.
Although sculling and sweep boats are generally identical to each other except having different riggers , they are referred to using different names:.
With the smaller boats, specialist versions of the shells for sculling can be made lighter. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat, whereas in sweep oared racing these forces are staggered alternately along the boat.
The sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle these unmatched forces, so consequently requires more bracing and is usually heavier — a pair 2- is usually a more robust boat than a double scull 2x for example, and being heavier is also slower when used as a double scull.
In theory this could also apply to the 4x and 8x, but most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either sweep rowing or sculling.
The symmetrical forces also make sculling more efficient than rowing: One additional boat is the queep , a coxed or non-coxed shell.
The bow and stroke positions have a set of sculling riggers and two and three have a sweep set. Many adjustments can be made to the equipment to accommodate the physiques of the crew.
Single, and double sculls are usually steered by the scullers pulling harder on one side or the other. In other boats, there is a rudder , controlled by the coxswain, if present, or by one of the crew.
In the latter case, the rudder cable is attached to the toe of one of his shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right.
The bowman may steer since he has the best vision when looking over his shoulder. On straighter courses, the strokesman may steer, since he can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course.
On international courses, landmarks for the steersmen, consisting of two aligned poles, may be provided. Blades, otherwise known as oars to amateurs or non rowers, are used to propel the boat.
They are long sculling: Classic blades were made out of wood , but modern blades are made from more expensive and durable synthetic material, the most common being carbon fiber.
A sculling oar is shorter and has a smaller blade area than the equivalent sweep oar. The combined blade area of a pair of sculls is however greater than that of a single sweep oar, so the oarsman when sculling is working against more water than when rowing sweep-oared.
He is able to do this because the body action in sculling is more anatomically efficient due to the symmetry. The spoon of oars is normally painted with the colours of the club to which they belong.
This greatly simplifies identification of boats at a distance. As many sports teams have logos printed on their jerseys, rowing clubs have specifically painted blades that each team is associated with.
Indoor rowing on ergometer, or tank is a way to train technique and strength by going through the same motions as rowing, with resistance.
A rowing tank is an indoor facility which attempts to mimic the conditions rowers face on open water. Ergometer rowing machines colloquially ergs or ergo simulate the rowing action and provide a means of training on land when waterborne training is restricted, and of measuring rowing fitness.
Ergometers do not simulate the lateral balance challenges, the exact resistance of water, or the exact motions of true rowing including the sweep of the oar handles.
However, this action can still allow a comparable workout to those experienced on the water. Sometimes, slides are placed underneath the erg to try to simulate the movement of being on the water.
It allows the machine to move back and forth smoothly as if there is water beneath you. The slides can be connected in rows or columns so that rowers are forced to move together on the ergometer, similar to how they would match up their rhythm in a boat.
One of the most common brand of ergometers is Concept2. An updated Rowperfect brand of dynamic rowers, RP3, produces ergometers that more naturally mimic the feel and resistance of rowing in a shell on the water.
It additionally, shows a dynamic force curve of power that provides the rower with detailed information about their stroke which they can use to improve technique and get stronger.
The most commonly damaged piece of rowing equipment is the skeg, which is a metal or plastic fin that comes out of the bottom of the boat to help maintain stability, and to assist in steering.
Since the skeg sticks out below the hull of the boat it is the most vulnerable to damage, however it is relatively easy to replace skegs by gluing a new one on.
Hull damage is also a significant concern both for maintaining equipment, and for rower safety. Hull damage can be caused by submerged logs, poor strapping to trailers, and collisions with other boats, docks, rocks, etc.
Racing boats are stored in boat houses. These are specially designed storage areas which usually consist of a long two-story building with a large door at one end which leads out to a pontoon or slipway on the river or lakeside.
The boats are stored on racks horizontal bars, usually metal on the ground floor. Oars, riggers, and other equipment is stored around the boats.
Boat houses are typically associated with rowing clubs and include some social facilities on the upper floor: Rowers may take part in the sport for their leisure or they may row competitively.
There are different types of competition in the sport of rowing. Time trials occur in the UK during the winter, and are referred to as Head races.
In the US, head races usually about 5k, depending on the body of water are rowed in the fall, while 2k sprint races are rowed in the spring and summer.
Rowing is unusual in the demands it places on competitors. This means that rowers have some of the highest power outputs of athletes in any sport.
This requires rowers to tailor their breathing to the stroke, typically inhaling and exhaling twice per stroke, unlike most other sports such as cycling where competitors can breathe freely.
Most races that are held in the spring and summer feature side by side racing, or sprint racing, sometimes called a regatta; all the boats start at the same time from a stationary position and the winner is the boat that crosses the finish line first.
The number of boats in a race typically varies between two which is sometimes referred to as a dual race to eight, but any number of boats can start together if the course is wide enough.
Some hold that the Whitehall rowing boat design was introduced from England. However the famed nautical historian Howard I. Chapelle , cites the opinion of the late W.
Chapelle, Stephens and others agree that the design came into existence some time in the s in New York City, having first been built by navy yard apprentices who had derived their model to some extent from the old naval gig.
The following year the boat was gifted to an aging General Lafayette , hero of the American Revolution, during his tour of the U. During the mid 20th century the boat was rediscovered in storage there, and its lines have been preserved at Mystic Seaport where an exact replica was built in —75, and is still rowed at Seaport events.
Many considerations go into selecting a good rowboat. A well designed rowboat will perform well in trying conditions. The classic shapes of rowboats reflect an evolution of hundreds of years of trial and error to get a good shape.
Some factors to be considered are waterline length, speed, carrying capacity, stability, windage, weight, seaworthiness, cost, waterline beam, the fullness or fineness of the ends, and trim.
Design details are a compromise between competing factors. If the waterline beam width is too narrow the boat will be tender and the occupant at risk of falling out, if the beam is too wide the boat will be slow and have more resistance to waves.
If the freeboard height of the gunwale above the waterline is too high then windage will be high and as a result the boat will be caught by the wind and the rower will not be able to control the boat in high winds.
If the freeboard is too low, water will enter the boat through waves. If the boat is designed for one person then only a single rowing position is required.
If the rower is to carry a passenger at the stern then the boat will be stern heavy and trim will be incorrect. To correct this a weight can be added in the bow, alternatively the boat can supply a second rowing position further forward for this purpose.
For a boat to have three separate thwarts and have adequate space for each occupant then the boat has to be of a certain minimum size.
Overall beam width is important. If the rowlocks are too close together the oars will be difficult to use.
Sometimes on narrow, faster rowboats for protected waters outriggers are added to increase rowlock separation. Most modern rowboats between 2. Waterline beam is important for stability.
Stability is much influence by seat height as the rower makes up a big percentage of the total weight. Wider boats can have higher seats.
Most modern style rowboats are considerably lighter than traditional clinker-built style. Spring in the keel or rocker influences how a rowboat performs.
Longer, slender race boats have less rocker of about 7. Boats with less rocker are easier to row and faster in flat or nearly flat water.
A boat with more rocker can change direction easily whereas a straight keel boat will track well in a straight line but resist turning. High sided and fine-ended boats, such as dories, are affected by wind.
Their trim can be altered by using a plastic container of water attached to a rope that can be moved to the bow or stern as need be. Long-distance rowers can keep up a steady 20 strokes per minute compared to a racing shell which can be rowed at 32—36 strokes per minute by fit athletes.
A rower can maintain 40 strokes per minute for only a brief period. Many old rowboats have very full ends blunt ends ; these may appear at first glance to be bad design as it looks slow, not fast.
However a full-ended rowboat will rise to a sea and not dig in as a finer hulled boat might do, thus a compromise needs to be made between the factors of speed and of seaworthiness.
This style of rowboat was designed to carry a bigger load and the full sections gave far more displacement.
Also older boats were often very heavily constructed compared to their modern counterpart, hence weighed far more.
A rowboat designed as a tender carrying occupants to a boat on a mooring might tend to be short, whilst a rowboat for use on rivers and to travel long distances might be long and narrow.
The position and length of oars is critical to rowboat performance. Generally, short boats have short oars. In the modern day of rowing, however, Olympic rowers especially all use the same oar length and brands when rowing.
The two most common types of oars used are Concept2 and Croker. Both use different material for the staff of the oar and their grips, but are the same length.
A short oar makes quick but short strokes possible. A short oar is easier to use in a narrow creek or a crowded anchorage.
This is important in a small tender which may be heavily laden with passengers, limiting the swing of the oars. A short, quick stroke prevents the bow being driven under in choppy waters while heavily laden.
Longer oars can be used to produce longer, slower strokes, which are easier to maintain over long distances. Designers may match oar length to the amount of space provided for oar storage in the boat.
Wooden oars are generally made of a light, strong wood, such as fir or ash. The blades can either be flat for general use, or spooned for faster propulsion.
Utility oars are often unbalanced. The height of the rowlock plate is adjusted by the height of the wooden spacer block. Rowboat used as tenders should have U shaped rowlocks so oars can quickly be unshipped when coming alongside.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about rowing as a method of transport or for recreation. For the sport, see Rowing sport.
For other uses, see Rowing disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.